Wednesday, August 29, 2012

"The Roaring Twenties" from Voice of America



THE MAKING OF A NATION – a program in Special English by the Voice of America.

As we have seen in recent programs, the administrations of President Warren Harding and Calvin Coolidge were a time of economic progress for most Americans. Many companies grew larger during the 1920s, creating many new jobs. Wages for most Americans increased. Many people began to have enough money to buy new kinds of products.

The strong economy also created the right environment for many important changes in the day-to-day social life of the American people. The 1920s are remembered now as an exciting time that historians call the "roaring twenties". The 1920s brought a feeling of freedom and independence to millions of Americans, especially young Americans. Young soldiers returned from the world war with new ideas. They had seen a different world in Europe. They had faced death and learned to enjoy the pleasures that each day offered.

Many of these young soldiers were not willing to quietly accept the old traditions of their families and villages when they returned home. Instead, they wanted to try new ways of living. Many young Americans, both men and women, began to challenge some of the traditions of their parents and grandparents. For example, some young women began to experiment with new kinds of clothes. They no longer wore dresses that hid the shape of their bodies. Instead, they wore thinner dresses that uncovered part of their legs.

Many young women began to smoke cigarettes, too. Cigarette production in the United States more than doubled in the ten years between 1918 and 1928.

Many women also began to drink alcohol with men in public for the first time. And they listened together to a popular new kind of music: jazz.

Young people danced the Fox Trot, the Charleston, and other new dances. They held one another tightly on the dance floor, instead of dancing far apart. It was a revolution in social values, at least among some Americans. People openly discussed subjects that their parents and grandparents had kept private.

There were popular books and shows about unmarried mothers and about homosexuality. The growing film industry made films about all-night parties between unmarried men and women. And people discussed the new ideas about sex formed by Sigmund Freud and other new thinkers.

An important force behind these changes was the growing independence of American women. In 1920, the nation passed the 19th Amendment to the constitution, which gave women the right to vote.

Of equal importance, many women took jobs during the war and continued working after the troops returned home. Also, new machines freed many of them from spending long hours of work in the home washing clothes, preparing food, and doing other jobs. Education was another important force behind the social changes of the 1920s. More and more Americans were getting a good education. The number of students attending high school doubled between 1920 and 1930. Many of the schools now offered new kinds of classes to prepare students for useful jobs.

The Charleston
Attendance at colleges and universities also increased greatly. And colleges offered more classes in such useful subjects as teacher training, engineering, and business administration.

Two inventions also helped cause the social changes. They were the automobile and the radio. The automobile gave millions of Americans the freedom to travel easily to new places. And the radio brought new ideas and experiences into their own homes.

Probably the most important force behind social change was the continuing economic growth of the 1920s. Many people had extra money to spend on things other than food, housing, and other basic needs. They could experiment with new products and different ways of living. Of course, not all Americans were wearing strange new "flapper" clothes or dancing until early in the morning. Millions of Americans in small towns or rural areas continued to live simple, quiet lives. Life was still hard for many people including blacks, foreigners, and other minority groups.

The many newspaper stories about independent women reporters and doctors also did not represent the real life of the average American woman. Women could vote. But three of every four women still worked at home. Most of the women working outside their homes were from minority groups or foreign countries.

Douglass Fairbanks
famous 1920s film actor
The films and radio stories about exciting parties and social events were just a dream for millions of Americans. But the dreams were strong. And many Americans -- rich and poor -- followed with great interest each new game, dance, and custom. The wide interest in this kind of popular culture was unusually strong during the 1920s. People became extremely interested in exciting court trials, disasters, film actors, and other subjects.

For example, millions of Americans followed the sad story of Floyd Collins, a young man who became trapped while exploring underground. Newsmen reported to the nation as rescue teams searched to find him. Even the "New York Times" newspaper printed a large story on its front page when rescuers finally discovered the man's dead body.

Another event that caught public attention was a murder trial in the eastern state of New Jersey in 1926.

Newsmen wrote five million words about this case of a minister found dead with a woman member of his church. Again, the case itself was of little importance from a world news point of view. But it was exciting. And Americans were tired of reading about serious political issues after the bloody world war. The 1920s also were a golden period for sports.

People across the country bought newspapers to read of the latest golf victory by champion Bobby Jones. "Big Bill" Tilden became the most famous player in tennis. And millions of Americans listened to the boxing match in 1926 between Jack Dempsey and Gene Tunney. In fact, five Americans reportedly became so excited while listening to the fight that they died of heart attacks.

However, the greatest single sports hero of the period was the baseball player, Babe Ruth.

Babe Ruth: 1920s Sports Hero
Ruth was a large man who could hit a baseball farther than any other human being. He became as famous for his wild enjoyment of life as for his excellent playing on the baseball field. Babe Ruth loved to drink, to be with women, and to play with children.The most famous popular event of the 1920s was neither a court trial nor a sports game. It was the brave action of pilot Charles Lindbergh when he flew an airplane across the Atlantic Ocean without stopping. He was the first man in history to do this.

Lindbergh flew his plane alone from New York to France in May, 1927. His flight set off wild celebrations across the United States.

Newspapers carried story after story about Lindbergh's success. President Coolidge and a large crowd greeted the young pilot when he returned to Washington. And New York congratulated Lindbergh with one of the largest parades in its history.

Americans liked Lindbergh because he was brave, quiet, and handsome. He seemed to represent everything that was best about their country. The 1920s was also a time of much excellent work in the more serious arts. We will take a look in our next program at American art, writing, and building during the exciting "roaring twenties".

You have been listening to THE MAKING OF A NATION, a program in Special English. Your reporters have been Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant. Our program was written by David Jarmul. The Voice of America invites you to listen again next week to THE MAKING OF A NATION.

COMPREHENSION CHECK

1. One reason social change in the 1920s occurred was because __________________ .
a: many women married and had children
b: there was a struggle by women for the right to vote
c: there was continued economic growth during the 20s
d: minority groups found life very difficult economically

2. In the 1920s, young people wanted to increasingly _______________________ .
a: break with the traditions of their parents
b: conform to the values of their parents
c: listen to the kind of music their parents enjoyed
d: live quiet and solitary lives

3. Most people in the 1920s were less interested in reading or hearing stories about ___________________ .
a: Calvin Coolidge
b: Charles Lindbergh
c: Babe Ruth
d: Jack Dempsy

4. The two American presidents during the 1920s were ______________ from 1921 to 1923 and _______________ from 1923 to 1929.
a: Theodore Roosevelt ... Warren Harding
b: Woodrow Wilson ... Calvin Coolidge
c: Warren Harding ... Calvin Coolidge
d: Calvin Coolidge ... Herbert Hoover

5. "Flapper" refers to a type of ___________________________ .
a: military hardware
b: machine for making work at home easier
c: switch for turning on and off an electric heater
d: style of clothing worn by young women

6. The following fact is generally not true of the period of the 1920s: _______ .
a: Many companies grew
b: Wages for most Americans decreased
c: More women smoked than before
d: It was a good time for retailers

7. In the 1920s, the young soldiers who returned from World War One wanted more _______________________ .
a: conservatism
b: freedom of ideas and experimentation
c: peace and quiet home on the farm
d: new opportunities for war experiences

8. This era was called the "Roaring Twenties" because _________________ .
a: it was a time of excitement and prosperity
b: it was a time when people played their radios as loudly as they could
c: it was the beginning of electric guitar music
d: it was a time when more people had lions and tigers as pets

9. In the 1920s, a young woman's grandmother often felt _______________ her grand daughter's behavior.
a: fascinated by
b: interested in
c: shocked by
d: influenced by

10. Two inventions helped cause social changes in the 20s. They were the ______________ .
a: washing machine and the video game
b: telephone and the telegraph
c: automobile and the radio
d: printing press and the collection plate

The Charleston was the dance that captured the spirit of the 1920s. It was danced with wild abandon by a new generation of independent young Americans, to the new hot jazz that was flooding the country. The dance began in Charleston, South Carolina, the city from which it takes its name. In 1923, The Charleston was featured in the Broadway show Runnin' Wild, one of the biggest hits of the decade. The song from the show - James P. Johnson's tune "The Charleston" - spread the fad across the nation and onwards to the rest of the world. Josephine Baker became famous for performing the Charleston in Paris in the 1920s. The Charleston is both a solo and partnered dance, both wildly exuberant and exciting to watch.







Thursday, August 2, 2012

"The Sixty-Seventh Balloon Flight" from Edcon Publishing




Young Colette had come to the Tivoli Gardens of Paris to await a performance by the notable and beautiful balloonist, Madame Marie Blanchard. It was the night of July 6, 1819 and the park was filled with an assembly of thousands of people. Unlike most of those present in the crowd, Colette had actually ascended in a hot-air balloon. Her ambition was to someday become a professional balloonist like Madame Blanchard. Madame Blanchard was the first woman known to pilot her own balloon, and to Colette, she was a heroine. The girl had hoped to meet Madame Blanchard after the performance. Now she awaited the balloon flight of Madame Blanchard with great excitement. As Colette stood in the midst of the assembly she overheard a man say, "I think she's crazy. She'll kill herself." Then a woman answered, "Madame Blanchard is a professional. She knows what she's doing."

Colette agreed with the woman. Madame Blanchard had been flying a balloon as a special attraction for large and small crowds of people all over Europe for the past ten years. Madame Blanchard had even crossed the Alps in a balloon and had given a special performance before the Emperor Napoleon. Colette then heard the same woman say, "I wonder what it's like to float in the sky in a balloon." Colette turned to her and said, "I can tell you. I've been up in a balloon." The man turned and looked at her in amazement and said, "You're just as crazy as Madame Blanchard." The woman asked Colette, "What was it like to ride in a balloon? How did you get to ride in one?" "Well," Colette began, "I was very nervous at first. The man who owned the balloon was looking for someone, who weighed very little, to fly in it. So, 1 was chosen. The balloon was held to the ground by two strong ropes. 1 was the only passenger. .. ," Colette stopped speaking. She and everyone around her had noticed that it was time for Madame Blanchard's flight. As Colette gazed at the magnificent and mammoth balloon being prepared for its ascent, she recalled her own thrilling flight in a balloon barely six months before. The unusual sight of a hot-air balloon had been a special attraction for the small assembly of people who had come to see its flight. Colette had felt frightened when she climbed into the balloon's basket and awaited her own ascent. But more notable than her fear had been her fascination with the excitement of doing something which few women, or men for that matter, had ever done. Colette recalled the thrilling, trembling feeling that traveled through her body as the balloon silently and effortlessly rose into the air. It was as if the balloon were standing still and the land was moving away. The gentle rocking of the balloon felt as if she were on a raft afloat on an ocean. Colette had grasped the basket's sides tightly as she saw the crowd of people seem to shrink in size and heard their voices change to distant sounds from below. The distance to the ground seemed enormous from such a height. The only sound was that of the creaking ropes that had once anchored her to the ground. Colette had felt totally alone, a solitary figure in the balloon's car. She was 'nervous, but also joyous. It had been an unforgettable experience, one she hoped to repeat. Since that day; Colette had collected every bit of information about balloon flying that she could. She knew that she would be able to earn money as a balloonist. After all, she had read of the fortune that Madame Blanchard had made in her free-flying balloon. '

It was now time for Madame Blanchard's flight. Colette saw the solitary figure of Madame Blanchard getting into the basket. Colette wondered if Madame Blanchard ever felt frightened. She would ask her when they met. Colette felt a rush of excitement as she watched Madame Blanchard's balloon rise above the ground. Colette had read that Madame Blanchard's balloon, which was now overhead, was not filled with hot air, but with hydrogen. Why did Madame Blanchard use hydrogen rather than hot air? Colette wondered. Hydrogen was known to burst into names when exposed to fire or even a spark. She would ask Madame Blanchard that question. too, after the performance. Madame Blanchard knew how to entertain a large assembly of people. She always managed to offer a notable performance. Colette had seen posters advertising tonight's flight of Madame Blanchard as an amazing event. Her special feature for this attraction was to be an elaborate fireworks display. Colette saw the long wire attached to the balloon with a small wooden platform holding fireworks at the end. Once the balloon was off the ground, the fireworks were lighted. The balloon resembled a ship afloat on a gently rocking ocean. The brilliant colors of the fireworks dazzled and delighted Colette. The crowd cheered. Madame Blanchard was magnificent. Colette knew that Madame Blanchard must be feeling as excited as Colette had felt when she had flown in a balloon. Madame Blanchard was floating in the sky. The last firework had faded and the smoke had cleared. Colette was watching Madame Blanchard carefully. She seemed to be lighting a firework from inside the balloon's basket. Colette saw a spark of fire, but instead of growing into a lovely burst of color, it seemed to form itself into a small ball of fire.

Colette remembered reading how easily hydrogen could catch fire and was worried. Yet she felt sure in her heart that all would go well for the great Madame Blanchard. Suddenly, the ball of fire surged upwards like a torch. Colette gasped. Some people thought it was part of the performance and cheered wildly; others were trying to move out of the crowd. Colette stared wide-eyed in horror at Madame Blanchard's balloon. A sick feeling spread through her stomach and her feet turned ice-cold. Madame Blanchard's balloon was now covered with flames and drifting over nearby rooftops. Madame Blanchard was crouched low inside the basket. Colette had read of many ballooning accidents where the balloonist had escaped alive. Even Madame Blanchard had survived ballooning accidents. She had to survive this one. There was confusion in the crowd. Some people were afraid that the balloon would crash on top of them and Colette was being pushed from all sides. Then she heard someone ahead shouting, "Madame Blanchard is alive! She is safe!" Colette felt a tremendous sense of relief after hearing that news. Slowly, she pushed and weaved her way through the large crowd and headed for her home. She knew she would not be meeting Madame Blanchard that night.

Colette was anxious to learn more about the accident and read the first news report as soon as she could. She could not believe what she read and she started to cry. The report stated that Madame Blanchard had died in the accident. She had planned to light one last firework from inside the balloon's basket and send it down in a parachute as a final act of the performance. Apparently, some hydrogen had been escaping from the balloon. The spark from the last firework had set the hydrogen on fire and caused the balloon to go up in flames. Madame Blanchard could probably have survived the accident had the balloon not struck a rooftop, hurling her into the street. She had been untouched by the flames, but the crash had killed her. It had been her sixty-seventh flight in a balloon.

COMPREHENSION CHECK

1. People had come to Paris to see a performance by _________
a. Colette.
b. Tivoli.
c. Madame Blanchard.
d. an amazing magician.

2. Colette's first balloon flight took place _________
a. before Madame Blanchard's last flight.
b. after Madame Blanchard's last flight.
c. at the same time as Madame Blanchard's flight.
d. in England.

3. Ballooning was an activity which Colette found _________
a. slightly interesting.
b. not at all interesting.
c. too frightening to repeat.
d. very interesting.

4. Madame Blanchard's balloon was filled with __________
a. cool air.
b. oxygen.
c. hot air.
d. hydrogen.

5. As the crowd watched, the balloon became covered with __________
a. hydrogen.
b. hot air.
c. Ice.
d. flames.

6. Madame Blanchard's story would most likely appear in a magazine article on ____________
a. the use of fireworks in ballooning.
b. famous balloonists of America.
c. famous balloonists of Europe.
d. the dangers of using hot air In balloons.

7. Madame Blanchard's sixty-seventh balloon flight took place _____________
a. less than one hundred years ago.
b. over one hundred years ago.
c. over two hundred years ago.
d. less than fifty years ago.

8. The accident had been caused by _____________
a. a high roof.
b. escaping hydrogen.
c. a parachute.
d. the many fireworks in the sky.

9. Another name for this story could be ______________
a. "Hot-Air Balloons."
b. "The Last Flight."
c. "Colette Flies Alone."
d. "The Tivoli Gardens of Paris."

10. This story is mainly about ____________
a. the life of a famous balloonist.
b. a young girl's hopes to fly.
c. a ballooning accident.
d. the use of hydrogen in balloons.