Tuesday, April 26, 2011

"The Missouri River" from VOA




This is Shirley Griffith. And this is Steve Ember with the VOA Special English program, EXPLORATIONS.

Today, we tell about another important American river, the Missouri. It is the longest river in the United States. The first American Indians to live along the Missouri River called the river the Mine Sose. It means the muddy river. Even today, the Missouri is called "the Big Muddy" by many people. This is because it carries huge amounts of dirt from the land through which it flows. The dirt makes the river a brown color for much of its length.

The Missouri begins in the Rocky Mountains of North America. It is formed by three rivers that come together in what is the north central state of Montana. The three rivers are the Jefferson, Madison, and Gallatin Rivers. They become the Missouri River in the southwestern part of Montana, more than 1,200 meters above sea level. The river is clear and flows rapidly as it begins its travels east and south. It moves more slowly as it flows down to the waters of the Mississippi River, about ten kilometers north of the modern-day city of Saint Louis

The Missouri travels 4,000 kilometers from the high mountains in the north to the low lands of the south. It flows along the borders of seven states: Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, and finally Missouri.

The first Europeans who reported seeing the river were at the mouth of the Missouri where it empties into the Mississippi. They were French explorers Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet. In Sixteen-Seventy-Three, they were traveling down the Mississippi in a small wooden boat when they heard a great noise of water moving at great speed. Father Marquette wrote that he felt great fear. He saw large trees floating into the Mississippi River. They were carried in violently moving muddy water. The muddy water was the Missouri River which emptied into the western side of the Mississippi

French Fur Traders and
Native American
The Missouri was a violent river, making travel along it difficult. Yet explorers and settlers used it as a way to move west. In the early Seventeen-hundreds, French fur traders began to travel along the Missouri to the lands of the great American west. The first non-natives to explore the river, from its mouth to its beginnings, did so in 1805 and 1806. President Thomas Jefferson sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the area.

The United States government had bought from France a large area of land called the Louisiana Territory. This land extended from the Gulf of Mexico northwest to the Pacific coast. The story of Lewis and Clark's travels up the Missouri River and on to the Pacific Northwest is one of the great stories of American exploration.

President Jefferson sent the two men to explore the little-known river to learn all about the land on both sides of it. Lewis and Clark completed the trip in two years. The explorers were the first Americans to cross the Missouri lands to the Pacific Northwest.

Lewis and Clark brought back to Washington a detailed report about the plants, trees, animals, climate they found on their travels. Many different scientists have long studied these facts.

The two men also returned with a lot of information about the different Indian nations of the West. Since then, the Indian names have become well known through the many stories and books written about them. The Mandans, the Nez Perce, the Sioux, the Blackfeet, the Chickasaws, the Pawnees and the Crows were some of these nations

Most of the Indians Lewis and Clark met along the way were a great help to them. One of the most famous was a woman named Sacagawea. She was a Shoshone Indian who had been captured by the Mandan tribe. The two explorers knew that the Shoshone Indians who lived near the Rocky Mountains had good horses. Since the two explorers began their trip, they had been traveling up the Missouri River by boat. They knew that they would need horses to help them in the next part of their exploration over land

So, Lewis and Clark took Sacagawea with them. She could help them deal with the Shoshone tribe when they left the river and crossed over the tall, rough mountains. Today, the image of Sacagawea is on the American dollar coin. It honors her part in helping Lewis and Clark explore what became the western United States.Soon after Lewis and Clark explored the territory, settlers began moving west along the Missouri River. They began their western travels on boats that took them from Saint Louis to either Kansas City or Saint Joseph in western Missouri. Then they took wagons to Oregon and California on the coast of the Pacific Ocean. It was the Missouri River that started them on their way to new homes in new lands.

A large part of the river became the border between two kinds of land, and two ways of life. On the east side were beautiful woodlands and lakes. On the west side were great open plains, stretching all the way to the high western Rocky Mountains.

The two sides of the river were different when the first European explorers traveled the Missouri. On the east side of the river, the explorers found Indian woodsmen living in tents hidden among trees. These tribes hunted deer. They fought their enemies by surprise attacks from hidden places

On the west side of the river, the explorers found strong Indian buffalo hunters and fighters on horses. These Indians attacked out in the open and wanted no cover to protect themselves only the backs of racing horses.

There are similar differences today. On the eastern side of the Missouri are farms and tall corn. On the western side are horses and cows and cowboys.It is said that you need to look in the middle of the Missouri River to find where the American West begins. The state of Missouri is in the center of the United States. It is named after the great river that flows from west to east through its center

Independence, Missouri, 1906
The city of Independence is in the western part of the state. It is considered the geographical center of the continental United States

One of the city's most famous citizens was Harry Truman, who was the Thirty-Third President of the United States. He was president from 1945 until 1953. When he left office, Truman returned to his home in Independence, on the shores of the Missouri River

For many years after Lewis and Clark's exploration, only fur traders used the river to carry the goods they wanted to sell. They carried their furs in small boats that were light on the water and did not hit the bottom

Beginning in 1830, the American Fur Company began to use steam boats to carry goods up and down the Missouri. This trade began to disappear in 1859. It was then that a railroad was completed between Hannibal, on the Mississippi River in the east, and Saint Joseph, on the Missouri River in the western part of the state of Missouri. It was easier to move goods and people by train.

After World War Two ended, the United States government approved a major plan to develop the areas along the Missouri River. The plan included flood control and development along the river. Now a series of six huge dams in the middle area of the river control the flow of the Missouri. More than 100 smaller dams are on smaller rivers that flow into the Missouri. The dams contain the water from the melting snows in the north. They reduce the flooding that once happened down river almost every spring.

Gavin Dam on the Missouri River
Today, the once wild river is controlled. Boats continue to carry goods and people up and down the Missouri River as they have for centuries.This Special English program was written by Oliver Chanler. This is Steve Ember. And this is Shirley Griffith. Join us again next week for another EXPLORATIONS program on the Voice of America.





COMPREHENSION CHECK

1. Sacagawea was a member of the ______________________ tribe .
a: Shoshone
b: Mandan
c: Nez Perce
d: Blackfoot

2. _________________ never saw the Missouri River.
a: Meriwether Lewis
b: Louis Jolliet
c: Thomas Jefferson
d: William Clark

3. ___________________ is considered the geographical center of the United States.
a: Saint Louis
b: Independence
c: Kansas City
d: Saint Joseph

4. When settlers moved west, their journey started in Saint Louis, then they traveled ______________ to Kansas City or Saint Joseph in Western Missouri.
a: by boat
b: on horseback
c: by foot
d: by covered wagon drawn by oxen

5.
"The Big Muddy" refers to ____________________________ .
a: the mud the Missouri carries for much of its length
b: the mud that is piled up on the Missouri's banks
c: untrue fictions about the Missouri River
d: The Missouri River

6. The east and west sides of the Missouri River had ________________________ land.
a: very different kinds of
b: pretty much the same kind of
c: excellent land for raising sheep
d: excellent land for the timber industry

7. The first Europeans to see the Missouri River felt _____________________ .
a: great fear because it was a violent river
b: great peace because it was a quiet river
c: great emotion because it was a beautiful river
d: great distaste because it was a muddy river

8. By now, the Missouri River ________________________ .
a: has continued to be a wild river
b: has lost all the mud it once had
c: has for the most part dried up and is only a small stream
d: has been largely been controlled by dams

9. The Missouri River begins in ______________________ .
a: the state of North Dakota
b: the Rocky Mountains
c: the Gulf of Mexico
d: the city of Saint Louis

10. By 1859, steam boats no longer carried as many goods and passengers as before because _____________________ .
a: of the invention of the railroad
b: it was no longer profitable to sell goods in western states
c: the river's violence made the steam boats unsafe
d: the river's mud splashed on the products

11. The Missouri River flows into _____________________ .
a: The Mississippi River
b: the Gulf of Mexico
c: The Colorado River
d: The Pacific Ocean

A Youtube Video about Missouri River Dams.



1 comment:

  1. These are great articles for ESL students to learn about history and geography. I believe ESL students also need to learn to enjoy <a href="http://www.eslstories.net" title=" reading for pleasure.</a>

    ReplyDelete